Animal and plant cells

Whilst there are many differences between many different organisms, we can say that they all go through eight life processes. These are nutrition, transport, synthesis, growth, excretion, respiration, regulation and reproduction. So understandably both animal and plant cells have many … Read More

Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes and prokaryotes sound like they could be complicated, but in the most simple terms the difference is that eukaryotes have a nucleus and prokaryotes do not. Looking a little closer. eukaryotes have organelles and linear DNA, whereas prokaryotes have … Read More

Energy transfer in and between organisms

Within the food chain energy can be passed and transferred from one organism to another. Whilst mammals get their energy sources from food – whether this be eating other animals or eating vegetation; plants get their energy from photosynthesis. Energy … Read More

Investigating diversity

Among species there are many things that vary between organisms, this is called diversity or variation. There are different types of variation, and crucially different ways to measure it. There can be variation between species and variation within species. Intraspecific … Read More


Biodiversity is the term used to describe the variety of living things in an area. Some areas, as you would expect, are far more diverse than others. The larger the number of species in an area, the more biodiverse it … Read More

Species and taxonomy

This is a great topic – mainly because it’s really short and really simple! Taxonomy is the branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms. Organisms are arranged into taxonomic groups. This helps scientists to group organisms according to … Read More

Genetic diversity and adaptation

Genetic diversity occurs through a variety of channels. One such way is by mutations in DNA. These mutations cause the formation of new alleles as there has been a change in the final protein product of the DNA. When these … Read More

Gene mutations

A gene mutation is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from what is found in most people. Mutations range in size; they can affect anywhere from a single DNA … Read More

DNA and protein synthesis

As you might have guessed, there is a lot to learn about DNA for this exam. But it’s pretty fascinating stuff so let’s get stuck in. There’s no particularly easy way to order what you need to know, but we’ll … Read More

DNA, genes and chromosomes

The bad news is there is quite a lot to learn about DNA, the good news is that once you learnt it, that’s a big topic out the way, and it’s also pretty interesting. So let’s get stuck in! DNA … Read More