Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry is used in a variety of different fields in order to measure the masses within a sample. The mass spectrometer is also used to measure the mass of broken down products that have been smashed by high energy … Read More


We can put alcohol through a process of elimination, also known as dehydration (we’re eliminating water from the alcohol) in order to form alkenes or alkoxyalkanes. The product that forms will depends on the conditions used in the elimination reaction. … Read More

Oxidation of alcohols

If you’re drinking it, alcohol is alcohol right? But alcohols can in fact be categorised as primary, secondary and tertiary depending on the number of carbon atoms. And this classification is very important as each type of alcohol holds different … Read More

Alcohol production

In this section we’re going to look at how alcohol, or ethanol, is produced. We’re also going to look at some of its uses – here’s a clue – people don’t just drink it! Ethanol is produced on an industrial … Read More

Addition polymers

An addition polymer is a polymer which is formed by an addition reaction – could probably guess that by its name! In this reaction many monomers join together under specific conditions such as heat, pressure and in some instances the … Read More

Addition reactions of alkenes

As a quick recap, before we get stuck into addition reactions, alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons containing a double bond – and it’s this bond that makes them useful in addition reactions. Addition reactions occur in compounds that have multiple bonds, … Read More

Structure, bonding and reactivity of alkenes

In this section we’re going to learn all about alkenes – so what are they? Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond. The number of hydrogen atoms in an alkene is double the number of carbon atoms. Alkenes … Read More

Ozone depletion

So to start with, what is the ozone? Well, the ozone layer is made up of ozone (O3) and it’s in an allotrope of oxygen. Now the ozone layer is part of the upper atmosphere where we would find ozone … Read More

Nucleophilic substances

A nucleophile is a species with a negative charge or a lone pair of electrons, that will attack an electron deficient centre. All molecules or ions with a free pair of electrons or at least one pi bond can act … Read More

Combustion of alkanes

First things first, alkanes are compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon. In this section we will explore how alkenes combust (or burn in non-chemistry lingo). The combustion of hydrocarbons is an exothermic reaction, obviously, as it would be pretty pointless … Read More