So there’s no great rhyme or reason as to how best to work through organic synthesis, so in Gojimo we’ve decided to lay out some practical examples and rules to help guide you through!

Without further ado let’s get stuck in.

Butanoyl chloride reacts with ethanol to produce ethylbutanoate. Butanoyl chloride replaces the acid in this esterification reaction. Our product is therefore ethylbutanoate.

Reacting butanoyl chloride with ethylamine produces N-propylbutanamide. We call these N-substituted amides. We term the substituent branch propyl, even though there are only two carbon atoms, as one of the carbons has been substituted for an N.

Butanoic acid is reacted with LiAlH4 in an acidic environment at -78 C to produce an aldehyde. These low temperature conditions limit the onward reduction of the aldehyde to a primary alcohol.

Butanoic acid is reacted with LiAlH4 in an acidic environment at room temperature to produce a primary alcohol.

Butanoyl chloride is extremely unstable, and must be kept in a dry environment. This is because it reacts with water to produce butanoic acid.

Water is a nucleophile that can react with acyl chlorides, displacing the chloride to produce the corresponding acid and HCl(g).

Butylethanoate reacted with water and an acid catalyst to produce ethanoic acid, butanol. These reaction conditions hydrolyse our ester into its constituent alcohol and organic acid.

And that’s enough on butanol because frankly it’s a bit dry!

Moving on, combinatorial synthesis involves running a synthesis loads of times, changing it slightly each time.

This kind of synthesis is popular in drug research, producing thousands of similar molecules to be tested, only a few of which may be active.

Benzenediazonium chloride is reacted with phenol in NaOH to produce an azo dye.

The highly unstable diazo compound reacts by electrophilic substitution with the benzene ring of phenol, creating a molecule with two benzene rings linked by an azo bridge NN.

For industrial ester production, it is preferred to produce an acyl chloride then an ester, rather than produce an ester straight from the corresponding acid. This is because acyl chlorides are more reactive.

In fact, acyl chlorides react with alcohols to produce esters irreversibly. If we were to instead react from an organic acid, we would only set up an equilibrium.