A lot of treaties were signed in the aftermath of WWI because the Allied Forces were determined to impose a series of harsh penalties on the nations they deemed responsible. They also wanted to make sure the world wouldn’t face another war like it, which failed as we all know.
The most important treaties were signed between the Allied Forces and Germany, Austria, Hungary, Ottoman Turkey and Bulgaria – but that doesn’t mean the rest are worth forgetting about. To help you remember all the treaties out there, we’ve compiled the following list for your reading pleasure. Happy revising!
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
This agreement was signed on 3 March 1918 between Soviet Russia and the Central Powers. It served to officially end Russia’s participation in WWI. As a result of the Treaty, Germany was able to transfer one million men to the Western front. This gave them numerical superiority over the Allied Forces’ armies. Despite this, they still lost the war.
The Treaty of Sevres
The Treaty of Sevres was signed at the Paris Peace Conference on 10 August 1920 between the Allied Forces and the Ottoman Empire. Should you want to know, the Treaty of Sevres was responsible for taking Smyrna away from Turkey and gifting it to Greece. It also turned Syria into a mandated territory under French control. Around this time, the Bosphorus was also placed under the control of the League of Nations, which meant Turkey effectively lost control of the entrance to the Black Sea through the agreement. So, the Treaty of Sevres essentially saw Turkey lose control of its former Empire, with some countries becoming independent and the remainder becoming British or French mandated territories. As you might imagine, the Turks were outraged by this, and nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal drove the Greeks out of Smyrna, resulting in the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.
The Washington Treaty
Also known as the Five-Power Treaty, this agreement was a Treaty among the major nations that had won WWI. On 6 February 1922 it was signed by the UK, US, Japan, France and Italy, which all agreed to actively prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction until 1932.
The Locarno Pact
The Locarno Pact of 1 December 1925 served as an important step in reducing political tensions in Europe. It saw Germany accept the western borders defined by the Versailles Treaty, and agree to alter its eastern borders only through negotiation. The agreement was an example of the League of Nations’ aim of achieving peace through negotiation. Germany’s acceptance of its western borders eased French concerns and paved the way for Germany’s membership in 1926.
The Kellogg-Briand Pact
Nothing to do with cereal, the Kellogg-Briand Pact was an international agreement that saw a cool 45 countries agree to never use war as a means of settling a dispute. The Treaty was signed on 27 August 1928.
The Hoare-Laval Pact
This agreement came about as a result of the Italian invasion of Abyssinia. It was a secret agreement between Britain, France and Italy, by which Italy was given control of two-thirds of Abyssinia. Just so you know, it was signed in December 1935 – though the exact date this happened is a bit sketchy.